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Top Ten terms

  1. cut-off value (cut-off point, cut point, threshold) — 20534 views
    “For diagnostic or screening tests, the value used to divide continuous results into categories; typically positive and negative” … (read more)
  2. index test — 15875 views
    “A diagnostic test that is being evaluated against a reference standard test in a study of test accuracy” … (read more)
  3. performance bias — 15398 views
    “Bias resulting from differences in the care provided to the participants in a study, other than the treatments being compared.” … (read more)
  4. length-time bias (length bias) — 10181 views
    “In screening, an apparent increase in survival due to detecting disease earlier than it would otherwise have been detected” … (read more)
  5. systematic review — 9120 views
    “A summary of studies addressing a clear question, using systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant studies, and to collect and analyse data from them” … (read more)
  6. effect estimate (effect size, estimate of effect, point estimate) — 8592 views
    “A statistical measure indicating the most likely size of a treatment effect” … (read more)
  7. randomized study (randomized control trial, RCT, randomized trial, randomized controlled trial (should not be used)) — 8156 views
    “A category of studies comparing two or more treatments in which random allocation is used to assign participants to treatment comparison groups” … (read more)
  8. before-after study (before and after study, uncontrolled before and after study, uncontrolled before-after study) — 7487 views
    “A type of non-randomized study in which health conditions are measured before and after a treatment” … (read more)
  9. lead-time bias — 7449 views
    “An apparent increase in survival due to detecting a health condition such as cancer at an early stage, when there is no actual effect on survival, just a longer period with the diagnosis.” … (read more)
  10. play of chance (random error) — 7214 views
    “In treatment comparisons, a type of error that may affect the results because too few events or outcomes have been observed to provide a reliable measure of the treatment effects” … (read more)