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Reporting bias distorts reported research because of decisions not to provide full information.
Publication bias sometimes refers specifically to not publishing a study, and reporting bias sometimes refers specifically to not providing full information, such as not reporting some of the outcomes that were measured in a study.
The one factor that has consistently been found to be associated with reporting bias is “negative” results (results that are not “statistically significant”). Consequently, reporting bias typically results in overestimation of treatment effects.
A high risk of reporting bias is a reason for there being less certainty of the evidence for an effect estimate.
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